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Interventions intended to change the behavior of individuals can be especially challenging. One such form is health promotion, where education and media may be used to promote healthy behaviors, such as eating healthy foods (to prevent 

obesity), using condoms (to prevent the transmission of STDs), or stopping open defecation in developing countries (see for example in India the campaign Swachh Bharat Mission)

The use of laws to criminalize certain behaviors can also be considered a public health intervention, such as mandatory vaccination programs and criminalization of HIV transmission.[16][17][18] However, such measures are typically controversial, particularly in the case of HIV criminalization where there is evidence it may be counterproductive. Laws which tax certain unhealthy products may also be effective, although also not without controversy, and are sometimes called a “sin tax”. Examples include the taxation of tobacco products in the U.S. and New Zealand, and sugared drinks in the UK.